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被动语态的基本用法

一. 何时使用被动语态  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
1.
不知道谁是动作的执行者或没有必要  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:Paper is made from wood.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
The house is quite old. It was built in 1950.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
He was wounded in the fight.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
2.
需要强调动作的承受者时  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:Calwlator can't be used in the maths exam.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
Books and newspapers in the reading room mustn't be taken away.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
He was awarded first prize in that contest.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
3
为了使语气婉转,避免提及自己或对方而使用被动语态,或由于修饰的需要,使用被动语态,使句子得以更好的安排。  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:The construction of the new lab must be completed by the end of next month.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
Electricity is used to run machines.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
. 被动语态的构成  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
1. be+done
可以是被动语态,也可以是系表结构形式。被动语态中,done可以带by短语,而系表结构中done相当于adj. 不带 by短语。  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:The question is settled. (系表结构)  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
Such questions are settled by us. (
被动语态)  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
The composition is well written. (
系表结构)    7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
The composition is written with great care . (
被动语态)  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
The job was well done. (
系表结构)  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
The job was well done by a skilled worker. (
被动语态)  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
2.
许多verbs(broken, interested, shut, worried), 既可以用做adj.也可以在被动语态结构中做过去分词。句中如果有by,通常是被动语态。  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:I was worried abeutyou all night. (表状态)  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
I was worried by mosquitoes all night. (
表动作)  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
The glass was broken by Jack. (
表动作)  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
The glass is broken. (
表状态)  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
I was frightened by his ghost story.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
She was frightened at the sight of a snake.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
.  不同形式的被动语态  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
1.
含有直宾和间宾的主动结构,变为被动时,可将其中一个宾语变为主语,另一个不动一般是主语结构的间接宾语变为被动的主语。  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:He showed me his pictures.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
I was shown his pictures by him.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
His pictures were shown to me by him.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
Aunt made me a new dress.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
I was made a new dress by aunt.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
A new dress was made for me by aunt.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
He sent me a birthday present.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
I was sent a birthday present by him.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
A birthday present was sent to me by him.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
2
含有复合宾语的主动句,宾补不变。  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
1将宾语变为主语,宾补不变。  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:They call her XiaoLi.      She is called XiaoLi.   

He left the door open.       The door war left open by him.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
(2)
make, let, have,hear, watch, see, feel, notice. help既动词后变做宾补的不定式一般不加to,变为被动,必须加to .  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:My brother often made me do this and that when I was young.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
I was often made to do this and that by my brother when I young.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
I heard her move about in her room upstairs last night.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
She was heard to move about in her room uptairs last night.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
Did you see Jack take away the magazine?  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
Was Jack seen to take away the magazine?  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
3.
情态动词的被动语态。是由情态V+be+p.p.构成  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:They can not find him.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
He can not be found.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
You must pay me for this.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
I must be paid for this.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
He can repair your watch.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
Your watch can be repaired.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
4.
短语V的被动语态  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
一般来讲,只有及物V才有被动语态,因为只有vt才能有动作的承受者; 但有许多由不及物动词+介词及其他词类构成的短语动词,相当与及物动词,可以有宾语。因而可以有被动语态,但应注意短语V是一个不可分割的整体。变被动时,不可丢掉构成短语的prepadv.这样的短语有:look after, listen to, look at, pay attention to, take care of, look forward to, make ues of,etc.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:They had put out the fire before the fire--brigade arrived.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
The fire had been put out before the fire-brigade arrived.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
They will set up a new public school here.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
A new public school will be set up here.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
5.
有些动词用主动形式表被动含义。.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:The goods sells well.             The door can't open.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
6.
有些词如want,need,require be worth后面,v-ing形式为主动,意义为被动。  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:The room needs/wants/requires cleaning.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
The book is worth reading.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
7.
主动语态中的宾语是从句,变成被动时使用形式替代词it.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:We know that Britain is an island country.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
It's known that Britain is an island country.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
The teacher said that this book has been translated into several languages  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
It's said that this book has been franslated into several languages  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
8.
宾语为反身代词,相互代词及虚词it时,不用被动,只用主动。  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:I will do it myself.           The man introduced himself as Mr. Wang.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
9.
谓语动词是以下时,无被动。  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
happen, belong to, suit, fit(
适合), have, let, join, fall, last(延长),cost(花费)  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
break out
(爆发)appear, burst out(迸发)hold(容纳)lack(缺乏),agree with(同意).  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
10.
据说类动词:say,consider, think, report, know, believe, suggest, understand, hope, etc.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
如:It is said that…           There is said to be…      Sth./Sb. is said to…  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
11.
主动形式表被动  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
感官动词:sound,taste,smell,fell,look,seem等主语是物时;  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
一些vi主动形式表被动含义open, close, shut, read, write, translate, wash, clean, lock, sell, wear, cut, cook, eat, weigh, drink, pay, draw, etc.  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
不定式to blame,to let(出租)作表语时,主动形式表被动含义  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
表(sth)需要的need ,want,require等后的动名词用主动形式表被动含义  7Px中国德育网,中小学德育网
⑤be  worth后的动名词主动形式表被动含义

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被动语态的基本用法

来源:中国德育网  投稿人:南江县长赤镇九义校 侯昌军  时间:2012-01-02